There are numerous essential points you require to understand prior to you can acquire an ozone generator. Before explaining, nonetheless, it is important to note that we are discussing corona discharge kind ozone generators. These are one of the most essential kind of commercial/industrial ozone generators. There are various other kinds of ozone generators, but non corona discharge units are mostly for use in little range applications, generating normally much less than half a pound each day or much less than 10 grams per hr of ozone.
This post will certainly examine the vital choice elements and also just how it associates with different applications for ozone and also the influence on the cost of an ozone generator.
The key variables include:
1. Output: This is how much ozone the machine makes, generally quoted in grams per hr or pounds daily.
2. Concentration: Ozone can be created at various concentrations ranging from 1-12 weight percent. The concentration of ozone has a result on a lot of applications as well as also influences machine result.
3. Gas Feed: you need to have a resource of feed gas including oxygen, there are 3 options: dry air, oxygen concentrated from air or purchased oxygen (either as fluid oxygen (LOX) or pressed oxygen in cyndrical tubes).
4. Generator Cooling: Ozone generator develop heat that has to be eliminated, the choices for eliminating this heat are air cooling or water air conditioning.
Picking the proper mix of features depends highly on the application. For instance, in water treatment applications higher focus of ozone are utilized while in air therapy applications lower focus can be chosen.
Ozone Generator Output
This is one of the most crucial consider choosing an ozone generator. The quantity of ozone required is based upon the application needs. If the ozone is being made use of for elimination of organic impurities from water, the quantity of ozone is proportional to the amount of organic in the water, the performance of the ozone organic response and the performance of dissolving the ozone right into the water.
As a certain instance, ozone is commonly used to lower chemical oxygen need (COD) in water. COD is gauged in ppm (milligrams per liter – mg/l). It typically takes 2 mg of ozone per mg of COD to eliminate the COD. So, if we had to deal with 10,000 litres per hr of water having 50 ppm of COD we would certainly require:
10,000 liters/hour X 50 mg/l COD x 2 mg Ozone/mg COD = 1,000,000 mg/hour
1,000,000 mg/hour = 1,000 g/hour = 1 kg/hour
So, we would certainly need to dissolve 1 kg/h of ozone (or 52.8 pounds daily of ozone).
Much less than 100% of the ozone injected in the water dissolves, so we require to know the ozone transfer efficiency. A well developed venturi shot system can liquify at least 90% of the ozone. For the instance over, you would need 1 kg/h ÷ 0.90 = 1.11 kg/h (58.7 pounds each day of ozone). This is the amount of ozone we would certainly have to produce at the targeted concentration to liquify the 1 kg/h of ozone into water.
Essential: An offered system will certainly generate less ozone as the focus of ozone increases. Ozone transfer effectiveness, the rate at which ozone liquifies right into water boosts with enhancing ozone focus. Both variables will figure out the last size of the device required.
Figuring out the amount of ozone called for, except for the simplest applications, requires research laboratory or pilot studies integrated with an engineering analysis to pick the correct equilibrium between ozone dose, focus and also generator dimension. Typically, an ozone generator firm will certainly not have the ability to give this details. If they can aid, there will certainly be an added expense for conducting the researches.
As kept in mind above, ozone focus can influence both the effectiveness of ozone in a provided application and the amount of ozone that can be created from an offered ozone generator. Essentially, high concentration ozone costs extra, yet can do much more in particular applications. Industrial corona discharge systems create anywhere from 1 weight percent ozone to 12 weight percent ozone. Gas treatment applications normally make use of the 1-3 percent array while water therapy application generally make use of 5-10 percent.
An essential element of ozone concentration is in contrasting different ozone generators. Makers make use of different bases for declaring the nominal result of an ozone generator. Normally, you have to review the fine print to see what focus they make use of to declare a provided manufacturing rate.
As an example:.
Outcome (g/h) Concentration (%) Rate.
Distributor # 1 60 6 $5,500.
Vendor # 2 60 4 $3,800.
At comparable concentrations the results would certainly look different:.
Supplier # 2 60 6 $6,000.
( g/h = grams/hour).
So, to rather compare equipments you need to recognize the quantity of ozone generated at a focus of passion together with the price of the generator. This will permit you to contrast ozone generators “apples to apples”.
Ozone Generator Gas Feed.
Ozone generators can work on different oxygen sources such dry air, focused oxygen or bought oxygen as a feed gas. Initially, a quick conversation of feed gases. Initially, ozone generators primarily dealt with air as the feed gas. Air includes around 20% oxygen and also only the oxygen can be transformed to ozone. Making use of air as the feed gas, the maximum financial focus of ozone that can be gotten is about 3 weight percent.
On top of that, the air must be extremely completely dry since moisture decreases ozone result and will certainly harm the ozone generator. To create a reasonable concentration of ozone, the air needs to have a dryness as measured by the humidity of concerning -100 degrees Fahrenheit. This indicates that in a million components of air there is only one part water. This degree of dry skin needs unique clothes dryers to remove the moisture. Refrigerated clothes dryers found on some compressors can only reach regarding a humidity of -40 levels Fahrenheit.
Making use of a feed gas with oxygen concentration above 90% enables the ozone focus to raise to the 5-10 percent array. In addition, ozone generators create greater results of ozone in terms of pounds per day or grams per hour using oxygen versus air.
Purchased oxygen normally is really completely dry due to the production process made use of. It can be purchased as a compressed gas in cylinders or as a fluid. The volume that can be stored as a compressed gas is much smaller than in fluid type. So, unless the ozone generator is being just made use of for brief quantities of time, pressed gas is probably not an excellent feed gas choice.
Fluid oxygen, often referred to as LOX, can be supplied in tiny containers or provided in truck lots amounts. It needs to be evaporated to the gas stage prior to use. It is one of the most affordable kind of oxygen if the oxygen production plant is not too far.
One more choice is to focus oxygen from air in a process referred to as stress swing absorption (PSA). In this procedure a material called a molecular screen absorbs both water and also nitrogen from air leaving generally oxygen in the gas stream. Oxygen concentrations of 90-95% are readily attained. The process is done in both little range as well as big commercial systems. Little applications include portable oxygen systems for individuals that require supplementary oxygen for breathing.
So, in recap the major feed gases for ozone are completely dry air, PSA oxygen or fluid oxygen. Some ozone generators can work on all three feed gas, but this is not always the case. Some ozone generator suppliers design their systems to run either on air or some kind of greater concentration oxygen. It is necessary to recognize this beforehand since it may not be feasible to switch over once the system is acquired. The bottom line here is that if you want higher focus, you need to use oxygen feed gas system with a generator made to utilize this gas.
Ozone Generator Cooling.
All ozone generators develop warm as a laboratory ozone generator result of the ozone production procedure. The generator has to be kept one’s cool considering that as the gas temperature increases the ozone will certainly damage down back right into oxygen making the procedure inefficient. Ozone generator producers give their ozone result and focus information based on a certain operating temperature level, normally 68-72 degrees Fahrenheit.
Every level above the stipulated temperature lead to a reduction of manufacturing. For example, for each degree increase in temperature level the rate of ozone manufacturing decreases by 0.6% in some systems. So, if the maker was supposed to run at 72 degrees and it is really operated at 82 levels the manufacturing would be decreased by 6%. Some generators close themselves down completely at certain temperatures to stop damages. So cooling down is a critical issue for the generator.
There are two typical air conditioning methods, air cooling with followers as well as water cooling. Air cooling is much less effective as well as decreases the dimension of the ozone generator that can be developed. As a whole, ozone generation of over 10 pound each day can not be easily finished with air cooled ozone systems.
Water cooled down systems come in a number of variants. Shut loop systems use a water chiller to cool down the water and also cycle it constantly through the ozone generator. Water generally goes into the ozone generator at around 60 levels F as well as leaves at 70 degrees F.
Indirect air conditioning loops making use of ground water or other water resources are additionally used. Here a warm exchanger has actually one side connected to the ozone generator with a recycling loop and on the other side a when through circulation of water readily available at the website. Often the water temperature is more than optimum and a bigger generator needs to be acquired to make up for the loss of production.
The selection of the kind of water air conditioning as well as making use of a chiller is based upon an engineering research study to stabilize the expense of the raised generator size with the price of cooling the water.
To summarize the key points:.
1. Specify the application meticulously to identify the quantity as well as concentration of ozone called for. If you do not recognize the proper quantity of ozone required agreement with a qualified laboratory or design company to perform the essential researches.
2. Make certain to contrast ozone manufacturing of different ozone generators at the very same ozone focus to get a fair comparison of rate.
3. For applications needing higher than 5 percent ozone, oxygen will be required for the feed gas. This will be normal for most water therapy applications.
4. For applications needing reduced concentrations of ozone, less than 3 percent, dry air is possibly one of the most affordable service. These would normally be applications for air therapy, such as smell control or control of air borne microorganisms.
5. For applications of less than 10 pounds per day (much less than 190 g/h) air cooled down systems might be ideal, however over this degree water cooled systems will likely be extra cost-effective.